Astrology (An Introduction)
Astrology: The art of divining the fate or future of persons from the juxtaposition of the sun, moon and planets Judicial astrology foretells the destinies of individuals and nations, while natural astrology predicts changes of weather and the operation of the stars upon natural things.
In Egyptian tradition, we find its invention attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, or Thoth, by whom under different names, is represented the various revelations of truth, both theological and natural; for he is the Mercury of the Romans, the eloquent deliverer of the messages of the gods. The name of Ptolemy, the greatest of which astrology can boast, belongs also to Egypt, bat to the comparatively recent period when Imperial Rome flourished. In Imperial Rome astrology was held in great repute, especially under the reign of Tiberius, who himself obtained that knowledge of the science from Thrasyllus, which enabled him to foretell the destiny of Galba, then consul. When Claudius was dying from the effects of Locustas poison, Agrippina cautiously dissembled his progressive illness; nor would she announce his decease till the very moment arrived, which the astrologers had pronounced fortunate for the accession of Nero. Augustus had discouraged the practice of astrology by banishing its professors from Rome, but the favour of his successors recalled them, and though occasional edicts, in subsequent reigns, restrained, and even punished all who divined by the stars; and though Vitellius and Domitian revived the edict of Augustus, the practices of the astrologers were secretly encouraged, and their predictions extensively believed. Domitian himself, in spite of his hostility, was in fear of their denouncements. They prophesied the year, the hour, and the manner of his death, and agreed with his father in foretelling that he should perish not by poison, but by the dagger.
After the age of the Antonines and the work of Censorinus, we hear little of astrology for some generations. In the eighth century the venerable Bede and his distinguished scholar, Alcuin, are said to have pursued this mystic study. In that immediately following, the Arabians revived and encouraged it. Under the patronage of Almaimon, the Mirammolin, in the year 827, the Megale Syntaxis of Ptolemy was translated under the title of " Almagest," by Al. Hazen Ben Yusseph. Albumasar added to this work, and the astral science continued to receive new force from the labors of Alfraganus, Ebennozophhn, Alfaragius, and Geber.
The conquest of Spain by the Moors carried this knowledge, with all their other treasures of learning into Spain, and before their cruel expulsion it was naturalized among the Christian savants. Among these the wise Alonio (or Alphonso} of Castile, has immortalized himself by his scientific researches, and the Jewish and Christian doctors, who arranged the tables which pass under his name, were convened from all the accessible parts of civilized Europe, Five years were employed in their discussion, and it has been said that the enormous sum of 400,000 ducats was disbursed in the towers of the Alcazar of Galiana, in the adjustment and correction of Ptolemy's calculations. Nor was it only the physical motions of the stars which occupied this grave assembly. The two kabalistic volumes, yet existing in cipher, in the royal library of the kings of Spain, and which tradition assigns to the hand of Alonio i himself, betoken a more visionary study, and in spite of the denunciations against his orthodoxy, which were thundered in his ears on the authority of Tertullian, Basil and Bonaventure, the tearless monarch gave his sanction to such masters as practiced truly the art of divination by the stars, and in one part of his code enrolled astrology among the seven liberal sciences.
In Germany many eminent men have been addicted to this study; and a long catalogue might be made of those who have considered other sciences with reference to astrology, and written on them as such, Faust has, of course, the credit of being an astrologer as well as a wizard, and we find that singular but splendid genius, Cornelius Agrippa, writing with as much zeal against astrology as on behalf of other occult sciences.
To the believers in astrology, who nourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, must be added the name of Albert von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland. He was indeed an enthusiast in the cause, and many curious anecdotes are related of this devotion. That he had himself studied astrology, and under no mean instructors, is evidenced by his biography and correspondence.
Of the early progress of astrology in England, little is known. Bede and Alcuin we have already mentioned as addicted to its study. Roger Bacon could scarcely escape the contagion of the art. But it was the period of the Stuarts which must be considered as the acme of astrology among us. Then Lilly employed the doctrine of the magical circle, and the evocation of spirits from the An Notoria of Cornelius Agrippa, and used the form of prayer prescribed therein to the angel Salmonceus, and entertained among his familiar acquaintance the guardian spirits of England, Salmacl and Makhidael. His ill success with the divining rod induced him to surrender the pursuit of rhabdomancy, in which he first engaged, though he still preserved_ in asserting that the operation demanded secrecy and intelligence in the agents, and, above all, a strong faith, and a competent knowledge of their work. The Dean of Westminster had given him permission to search for treasure in the cloisters of the abbey in the dead of the night. On the western side, the rods turned over each other with inconceivable rapidity, yet, on digging, nothing but a coffin could be discovered. He retired to the abbey, and then a storm arose which nearly destroyed the west end of the church, extinguished all the candles but one, and made the rods immovable Lilly succeeded at length in charming away the demon, "no persuasion could induce him to make another experiment in that species of divination. The successor of Lilly was Henry Coley, a tailor, who had been his amanuensis, and traded in prophecy with success almost equal to that of his master.
While astrology flourished in England it was in high repute with its kindred pursuits of magic, necromancy, and alchemy, at the court of France. Catherine de Medici herself was an adept in the art. At the revolution, which commenced a new era in this country, astrology declined, and notwithstanding the labors of Partridge, and those of Ebenezer Sibley, it has only in recent years recovered its importance.
There are twelve signs of the Zodiac, divided in astrology into "Northern and "Commanding" (the first six), and " Southern' and " Obeying " (last six). They are as follow :
Aries, the house of Mars, and exaltation of the sun, or the first sign of the zodiac, is a vernal, dry, fiery, masculine, cardinal, equinoctial, diurnal, movable, commanding, eastern, choleric, violent, and quadrupedian sign. These epithets will be presently explained. The native, that is, the person born under its influence, is tall of stature, of a strong but spare make, dry constitution, long face and neck, thick shoulders, piercing eyes, sandy or red hair, and brown complexion. In disposition he will be •warm, hasty and passionate. The aspects of the planets may, however, materially alter these effects. This sign rules the head and face. Among diseases, it produces small-pox, and epilepsy, apoplexy, headache, hypochondriasia, baldness, ringworm, and all diseases of the head and face, paralysis, fevers, measles, and convulsions. It presides over the. following countries; England, France, Germany, Syria, Switzerland, Poland and Denmark; and over the cities of Naples, Capua, Padua, Florence, Verona, Ferrara, Brunswick, Marseilles, Cxsarea, and Utrecht. Its colors an red and white.
Now to explain this terminology, before examining another sign, there are said to be four triplicities among the signs, vii.: the earthly triplicity, including Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn; the airy, which includes Gemini, Libra and Aquarius; the fiery, under which are reckoned Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius; and the watery, which claims Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces. The signs are further divided into diurnal and nocturnal: Aries diurnal, Taurus nocturnal, and so on alternately, the diurnal signs being all masculine, and the nocturnals feminine. The terms tropical, equinoctial, vernal, etc., need no comment. Fixed, common, movable, refer to the weather. Signs which are named after quadrupeds are. of course, quadrupedal Such as are called after human states of occupations as humane. A person born under a fiery masculine diurnal sign, is hot in temper, and bold in character. If it be & quadrupedal sign, he is somewhat like to the animal after which the sign is called. Thus in Taurus, the native ii bold and furious ; in Leo, fierce and cruel. Cardinal signs are those occupying the four cardinal points. The first six from Aries are termed commanding, and the latter six, obeying signs. Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces are called fruitful or prolific; and Gemini, Leo, and Virgo, barren. Sagittarius, because usually represented as a centaur, is said to be humane, and productive of humane character in the former fifteen degrees, but of a savage, brutal and intractable disposition in the latter.
We shall now proceed with the signs. Tanrus is cold and dry, earthly, melancholy, feminine, fixed and nocturnal, southern, the night-house of Venus. When influential in a nativity, it usually produces a person with *. broad forehead, thick lips, dark curling hair, of quality rather brutal, melancholy, and slow in anger, but when once enraged, violent, furious, and difficult to be appeased. The diseases under this sign are all such as attack the throat, scrofula, quinsey, imposthumes and wens. The sign rules the neck and throat. Places subject to it an stables, cowhouses, cellars and low rooms, and all places used for or by cattle. Of kingdoms, Russia, Ireland, Sweden, Persia and Parthia, and of cities, Leipsic, Parma, Mantua, Novogorod, and eleven others.
Gemini is masculine and diurnal, aerial, hot and moist. The native is tall, and straight of body, with long arms; the hands and feet well formed, the complexion rather dark, the hair brown, the eye hazel; strong and active in person, sound and acute in judgment; lively, playful, and generally skilful in business. Diseases under this sign are those to which the arms, hands and shoulders are subject, with aneurisms, frenzy and insanity. Places: hilly and high grounds, the tops of houses, wainscoted rooms, halls and theatres, barns, storehouses and stairs; kingdoms, Armenia, Brabant, Lombardy, Sardinia and Egypt; cities: London, Bruges, Cordova, Metz and seven others. It is the day-house of Mercury, and rules the colours red and white.
Cancer is the only house of the moon, and the first sign of the watery northern triplicity. It is a watery, cold, moist, phlegmatic, feminine, movable nocturnal, solstitial, and exceedingly fruitful sign, more so than any other. The native is fair and pale, short and small; the upper part of the body larger in proportion to the lower; a round face, light hair., and blue or grey eyes; phlegmatic, and heavy in disposition; weak in constitution, and of a small voice. Diseases: All disorders of the breast and stomach over which parts the sign rules; cancers, consumption, asthma, dropsy and surfeits. Kingdoms: Scotland, Holland, Zealand, Burgundy, Numidia and Carthage; places : the sea and all rivers, swamps, ponds, lakes, wells, ditches, and watery places. Cities: Constantinople, Tunis, York and New York, Genoa, Venice, Algiers, Amsterdam, Cadiz, and sixteen others. The colours ruled by this sign are green and russet.
Leo is a sign of a very different nature. It is the only house of the sun; fiery, hot, dry, masculine, choleric, commanding, eastern, and a very barren sign. When this sign ascends in a nativity, the individual will be of a tall and powerful frame, well-shaped, of-an austere countenance, of light, yellowish hair, large piercing eyes, commanding aspect,. and ruddy complexion. The character will be fierce and cruel, but yet open, generous and courteous. Such was Richard Cceur-de-Lion. But the latter part of the sign is weaker and more brutal. This sign is even more modified by planetary influences than any others. Among diseases it causes all affections of the heart, over which together with the back and the vertebrae of the neck, it rules; fevers, plague, jaundice and pleurisy. Of places, it governs woods, forests, deserts and hunting-grounds, fireplaces and furnaces; of kingdoms: Italy, Chaldaea, Turkey and Bohemia; of cities: Bath, Bristol, Taunton, Rome, Damascus, Prague, Philadelphia, and nineteen others. Its colours are red and green.
Virgo is an earthy, cold, dry, barren, feminine, southern, melancholy, commanding sign. Tt is the house and exaltation of Mercury. The native is handsome and well-shaped, slender, of middle stature, and of a dear, ruddy or brown complexion; dark hair and eyes, the face rather round, and the voice sweet and clear, but not strong; the character amiable and benevolent, witty and studious, but not persevering; and if not opposed by planetary aspects, apt to oratory. This sign rules the viscera, and is answerable for all diseases affecting them. Of places : cornfields and granaries, studies and libraries; of kingdoms: Greece, Crete, Mesopotamia and Assyria; of cities: Jerusalem, Paris, Corinth, and twelve others. Its colours are blue and black.
Libra is a sign aerial, sanguine, hot, moist, equinoctial cardinal, movable, masculine, western and diurnal, humane, and the day-house of Venus. The native is tall and well-made, very handsome, of a fine ruddy complexion in youth, but which changes to a deep red with advancing years. The hair long and flaxen, the eyes grey, the disposition courteous, and the character just and upright. Of kingdoms it governs Ethiopia, Austria, Portugal, and Savoy; and of cities, Antwerp, Frankfort, Vienna, Charlestown in America, and twenty-seven others. The colours which it rules are crimson and tawny ; and of places, mountains, saw-pits and woods newly felled. Scorpio, the night-house of Mars, is a cold, phlegmatic, feminine, nocturnal, fixed, northern, and watery sign. The native is of a strong, robust, corpulent body, of a middle stature, broad visage, dark but not clear complexion, dark grey eyes or light brown, black hair or very dark brown, short, thick legs and thick neck. Of places it governs swampy grounds and stagnant waters, places which abound in venomous creatures, orchards and ruinous houses, especially near water. Of kingdoms: Fez, Bavaria, Norway and Mauritania; of cities : Messina, and others; of colours: brown.
Sagittarius is a fiery, hot, dry, masculine, diurnal, eastern, common, bicorporeal, obeying sign, the day-house and joy of Jupiter. The native is well-formed and rather above the middle stature, with fine chestnut hair, but inclined to baldness, a visage somewhat long but ruddy and handsome ; the body strong, stout and hardy. He is inclined to horsemanship and field-sports, careless of danger, generous and intrepid, but hasty and careless. This sign rules the hips, and is the cause of gout, rheumatism and disorders which affect the muscles. Accidents and disorders occasioned by intemperance come under the government of this sign. Of kingdoms : Spain, Hungary, Sclavonia and Arabia; of places: stables and parks; and of colors, green and red.
Capricorn is an earthy, cold, dry, feminine, nocturnal, movable, cardinal, solstitian, domestic, southern, quadrupedal sign; the house of Saturn, and the exaltation. The native is of slender stature, long thin countenance, small beard, dark hair and eyes, long neck, narrow chest and chin, tall usually, though not always; in disposition, cheerful and collected; talented and upright. Ruling the knees and hips, it governs all diseases which afflict them, and also all cutaneous diseases, such as leprosy, etc., and melancholy diseases such as hypochondriasis and hysteria. The kingdoms which it rules are India, Thrace, Mexico and Saxony; and the cities, Oxford, Bradenburg and nineteen others. The places over which it has power are workshops and fallow grounds, and its colours, black and brown.
Aquarius is an airy.hot, moist, rational, fixed, humane, diurnal, sanguine, masculine, western, obeying sign, the day-house of Saturn. The native is a well-made and robust person, rather above the middle stature, long face, but of a pleasing and delicate countenance, clear, bright complexion, with flaxen hair, often sandy; of a disposition fair open and honest. As this sign rules the legs and ankles, it causes all diseases which affect them: lameness, white swelling, cramp, and gout. Of places it denotes mines and quarries, aeroplane machines, roofs of houses, wells, and conduits.
Of kingdoms: Tartary, Denmark and Westphalia; and of cities: Hamburg, Bremen, and fifteen more. Its colours are grey and sky-blue. Lastly, Pisces is a watery, cold, moist, feminine, phlegmatic, nocturnal, common, bicorporeal, northern, idle, effeminate, sickly, and extremely fruitful sign, only less so than Cancer; the house of Jupiter, and the exaltation of Venus. The native is short and ill-shaped, fleshy, if not corpulent, with thick, round shoulders, light hair and eyes, the complexion pale, and the head and face large; of a weak and vacillating disposition, well-meaning, but devoid of energy. This sign rules the feet, and causes lameness and every kind of disorder occasioned by watery humours. Of places: all such as are under Cancer, save the sea and rivers; of kingdoms: Lydia, Calabria, Pamphy-lia and Normandy ; of cities: Compostella, Alexandria, Rheims, Ratisbon, and eleven others; and of colors, it rules white.
The influence and effects of the planets are still more important than those of the signs, and they areas follow: We commence with the most remote of the planets, Uranus. The days and hours are, as we have seen divided among the planets, but as none were left vacant, the appropriation of any to Uranus would, of course, throw out almost all the ancient calculations. If these then are to be preserved, the newly-discovered planet has no influence; but if this be the case, by what analogy can any be assigned to the others? However, when this question was likely to be debated, Uranus was rolling on in its far-off orbit, and occasioning no uneasiness whatever to astrologers or magicians. Leaving out all mention of the astronomical elements, we proceed to notice that Uranus is by nature extremely cold and dry, melancholy, and one of the infortunes. The native is of small stature, dark or pale complexion, rather light hair, of a highly nervous temperament, sedate aspect, but having something singular in his appearance; light grey eyes, and delicate constitution. If the planet be well dignified, he is a searcher into science, particularly chemistry, and remarkably attached to the wonderful He possesses an extraordinary magnanimity and loftiness of mind, with an uncontrollable and intense desire for pursuits and discoveries of an uncommon nature. If ill-dignified, then the native is weak, sickly, and short-lived, treacherous, and given to gross imposture, unfortunate in his undertakings, capricious in his tastes, and very eccentric in his conduct. No planet, save Saturn, is so actively and powerfully malevolent as this. His effects are truly malefic. They are, however of a totally unexpected, strange and unaccountable character. He rules over places dedicated to unlawful arts, laboratories, etc. The regions under his immediate governance are Lapland, Finland, and the Poles. Professions: necromancers and Goetic magicians; cities: Upsala and Mexico. The name" of his angel has not been found out, but he is known to be very hostile to the female sex, and when his aspects interfere in the period of marriage, the result is anything but happiness.
Saturn is by nature cold and dry; is a melancholy, earthy, masculine, solitary, diurnal, malevolent planet, and the great infortune. When he is lord of the ascendant, the native is of a middle stature, the complexion dark and swarthy, or pale; small black eyes, broad shoulders, black hair, and ill-shaped about the lower extremities. When well dignified, the native is grave and wise, studious and severe, of an active and penetrating mind, reserved and patient, constant in attachment, but implacable in resentment, upright and inflexible; but if the planet be ill-dignified at the time of birth, then the native will be sluggish, covetous, and distrustful; false, stubborn, malicious, and ever discontented. This planet is said to be well dignified in the horoscope of the Duke of Wellington, and to have been ill-dignified, but singularly posited in that of Louis XL of France. The diseases he signifies are quartan agues, and such as proceed from cold and melancholy ; all impediments in the sight, ear, and teeth; rheumatism, consumption, disorders affecting the memory, the spleen, and the bones. Saturn, in general, signifies husbandmen, day-laborers, monks, Jesuits, sectarians, sextons, and such as have to do with the dead; gardeners, dyers of black, and thirty-three other professions, which Lilly enumerates. He mentions also forty-eight plants, including all anodynes and narcotic poisons, which are under the rule of this planet. Among animals, the cat, the ass, hare, mole, mouse, wolf, bear, and crocodile; all venomous creatures. Among fishes, the eel, tortoise and shell-fish ; among the birds, the bat, and the owl; among metals and minerals, lead, the loadstone, and all dross of metals ; over the sapphire, lapis lazuli, and all stones that are not polishable, and of a leaden or ashy colour.
"He causeth the air to be dark and cloudy, cold and hurtful, with thick and dense vapours. He delighteth in the eastern quarter, causing eastern winds; and in gathering any plant belonging to him the ancients did observe to turn their faces to the east in his hour. Those under him do rarely live beyond fifty-seven years; and if he be well placed, seldom less than thirty. But his nature is cold and dry, and these qualities are destructive to man. Black is the colour which he ruleth. Of countries under his influence are Bavaria, Saxony, and Styria; Ravenna, Constance and Ingoldstadt among cities. His friends are Jupiter, Mars and Mercury; his enemies, the Sun and Venus. We call Saturday his day, for then he begins to rule at sunrise, and rules the first hour and the eighth of that day. His angel is Cassel."
The next planet is Jupiter. He is a diurnal, masculine planet, temperately hot and moist, airy, and sanguine; the greater fortune and lord of the airy triplicity. The native, if the planet be well dignified, will be of an erect carriage and tall stature; a handsome ruddy complexion, high forehead, soft, thick brown hair; a handsome shape and commanding aspect; his voice will be strong, clear and manly, and his speech grave and sober. If the planet be ill dignified, still the native will be what is called a good-looking person, though of smaller stature, and less noble aspect. In the former case, the understanding and character will be of the highest possible description ; and in the latter case, though careless and improvident, immoral and irreligious, he will never entirely lose the good opinion of his friends. Yet he will be, as Sancho Panza expresses it: " Haughty to the humble, and humble to the haughty." The diseases it rules are apoplexy and inflammation of the lungs; disorders affecting the left ear, cramps, and palpitations of the heart. Plants: the oak, spice, apples, and one hundred and seventy-two others; gems : topaz, amethyst, hyacinth and bezoar ; minerals : tin, pewter and firestone; animals: the ox, horse, elephant, stag, and all domestic animals; weather: pleasant, healthful, and serene west-north and north-west winds ; birds: the eagle, peacock, pheasant, etc. Of fishes, he rules the •whale and the dolphin; of colours: blue, when well posited ; of professions : the clergy, the higher order of law students, and those who deal in woollen goods ; when weak, the dependents on the above, with quacks, common cheats, and drunkards. Places: all churches, palaces, courts, and places of pomp and solemnity. He rules the lungs and blood, and is friendly with all the planets, save Mars. Countries: Spain, Hungary and Babylon; his angel is Zadkiel.
The next planet is Mars; a masculine, nocturnal, hot, and dry planet; of the fiery triplicity; the author of strife, and the lesser infortune. The native is short, but strongly made, having large bones, ruddy complexion, red or sandy hair and eyebrows, quick, sharp eyes, round, bold face, and fearless aspect. If well dignified, courageous and invincible, unsusceptible of fear, careless of life, resolute and unsubmissive. If ill dignified, a trumpeter of his own fame, without decency or honesty; fond of quarrels, prone to fightings, and given up to every species of fraud, violence and oppression. Nero was an example of this planet's influence, and the gallows is said to terminate most generally the career of those born in low life under its government. This plant rules the head, face, gall, left ear, and the smell. Disease: plague, fevers, and all complaints arising from excessive heat; all wounds by iron or steel, injuries by poison, and all evil effects from intemperate anger. Herbs and plants : mustard, radish, with all pungent and thorny plants; gems. the bloodstone, jasper, ruby and garnet; of minerals. iron, arsenic, antimony, sulphur and vermilion; animals. the mastiff wolf, tiger and all savage beasts; birds. the hawk, kite, raven, vulture, and generally birds of prey; weather: thunder and lightning, fiery meteors, and all strange phenomena; kingdoms: Lombardy and Bavaria; cities: Jerusalem and Rome. He signifies soldiers, surgeons, barbers and butchers. Places: smiths' shops, slaughterhouses, fields of battle, and brick-kilns. His friends are all the planets, save the Moon and Jupiter. His colour is red, and his angel is Samael.
We now come to the Sun, a masculine, hot and dry, of favorable effects. The native is very like one born" under Jupiter, but the hair is lighter, the complexion redder, the body fatter, and the eyes larger. When well dignified, the solar man is affable, courteous, splendid and sumptuous, proud, liberal, humane, and ambitious. When ill dignified, the native is arrogant, mean, loquacious, and sycophantic; much resembling the native under Jupiter, ill dignified, but still worse. Diseases: all those of the heart, mouth and throat; epilepsy, scrofula, tym-paniti?, and brain - fevers. Herbs and plants: laurel, vervain, St. John's wort, orange, hyacinth, and some hundreds beside; gems: carbuncle, the diamond, the aetites; minerals: gold; animals: the lion, the boar, the horse; birds: the lark, the swan, the nightingale, and all singing birds; fish : the star-fish and all shell-fish ; countries : Italy, Bohemia, Chakhea and Sicily; of cities: Rome; colour yejlow; weather, that which is most seasonable; professions: kings, lords and all dignified persons, braziers, goldsmiths, and persons employed in mints; places: kings' courts, palaces, theatres, halls, and places of state. His friends are all the planets, save Saturn; and his angel is Michael.
The influence of the asteroids, Juno, Pallas, Ceres, and Vesta, have never been calculated, and they are said by modern astrologers to act beneficially, but feebly.
The Moon is a far more important planet; feminine, nocturnal, cold, moist, and phlegmatic. Her influence in itself is neither fortunate nor unfortunate. She is benevolent or otherwise, according to the aspects of other planets towards her; and under these circumstances she becomes more powerful than any of them. The native is short and stout, with fair, pale • complexion, round face, grey eyes, short arms, thick hands and feet, very hairy, but with light hair; phlegmatic. If the Moon be affected by the Sun at the time of birth, the native will have a blemish on or near the eye. When the Moon is well dignified the native is of soft, engaging manners, imaginative, and a lover of the arts, but wandering, careless, timorous, and unstable, loving peace, and averse from activity. When ill dignified, then the native will be of an ill shape, indolent, worthless and disorderly. Diseases: palsy, epilepsy, scrofula and lunacy, together with all diseases of the eyes; herbs: lily, poppies, mushrooms, willow, and about two hundred others ; minerals and gems; pearls, selenite, silver and soft stones; colour, white; animals: the dog, the cat, the otter, the mouse, and all amphibious creatures; birds: the goose, duck, bat and waterfowl in general; fish: the eel, the crab, and the lobster; weather: she increases the effect of other planets; countries: Denmark, Holland, Flanders, and North America; cities: Amsterdam, Venice, Bergen-op-Zoon, and Lubeck; places: fountains, baths, the sea, and in watery places ; professions : queens and dignined women, midwives, nurses, all who have to do with water, sailors. Her angel is Gabriel. Venus is a feminine planet, temperately cold and moist, the author of mirth and sport. The native is handsome, well-formed, but not tall; clear complexion, bright hazel or black eyes, dark brown or chestnut hair, thick, soft, and shining; the voice soft and sweet, and the aspect very prepossessing. If well dignified, the native will be cheerful, friendly, musical, and fond of elegant accomplishments; prone to love, but frequently jealous. If ill dignified, the native is less handsome in person and in mind., altogether vicious, given up to every licentiousness; dishonest and atheistical. Herbs and plants: the fig-tree, myrrh, myrtle, pomegranate, and about two hundred and twenty-more ; animals: the goat, panther, hart, etc.; birds: the sparrow, the dove, the thrush, and the wren ; gems: the emerald, chrysolite, beryl, chrysoprasus; countries: Spain, India and Persia; cities: Florence, Paris and Vienna; mineral: copper; colour: green ; occupations : all such as minister to pomp and pleasure; weather: warm, and accompanied with showers. Her angel is Hanael.
Mercury is the last of the planets which we nave to consider. He is masculine, melancholy, cold, and. dry. The native is tall, straight, and thin, with a narrow face and high forehead, long straight nose, eyes black or grey, thin lips and chin, scanty beard, with brown hair; the arms, hands and fingers, long and slender; this last is said to be a peculiar mark of a nativity under Mercury. If the planet be oriental at the time of birth, the native will be very likely to be of a stronger constitution, and with sandy hair. If occidental, sallow, lank, slender, and of a dry habit. When well dignified, he will be of an acute and penetrating mind, of a powerful imagination, and a retentive memory; eloquent, fond of learning, and successful in scientific investigation. If engaged in mercantile pursuits, enterprising and skilful. If ill dignified, then the native is a mean, unprincipled character, pretending to knowledge, but an imposter. and a slanderer, boastful, malicious, and addicted to theft. Diseases: all that affect the brain, head, and intellectual faculties; herbs and plants: the walnut, the valerian, the trefoil, and about one hundred more; animals: the dog, the ape, the weasel, and the fox; weather: rain, hailstones, thunder and lightning, particularly in the north; occupations: all literate and learned professions; when ill dignified, all pretenders, quacks, and mountebanks. Places: schools, colleges, markets, warehouses, exchanges, all places of commerce and learning; metal, quicksilver; gems : cornelian, sardonyx, opal, onyx, and chalcedony; his colour is purple. His friends are Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn; his enemies Mars, the Sun, and the Moon. His angel is Raphael.
The Aspects of the Planets are five, thus distinguished:
1. Conjunction, when two planets are in the same degree and minute of a sign, which may be of good or evil import, according to the nature of the planets, and their relation to each other as friendly or the contrary.
2. Sectile, when two planets are 60° distant from each other, it is called the aspect of imperfect love or friendship, and is generally a favourable omen. 3. Quartile, when two planets are 90° distant from each other, making the aspect of imperfect hatred, and inclining to enmity and misfortune. 4. Trine, when the distance is 120°, promising the most perfect unanimity and peace. 5, Opposition, when two planets are 180° apart, or exactly opposite each other, which is considered an aspect of perfect hatred, and implies every kind of misfortune.
The Planets are said to be in their joys when situated in the houses where they are most strong and powerful, thus: Saturn in Aquarius, Jupiter in Sagittarius, Mars in Scorpio, the Sun in Leo, Venus in Taurus, Mercury in Virgo, and the Moon in Cancer. Cogent reasons are given why the planets should joy in these houses rather than others. The Dragon's Head and Dragon's Tail are the points, called nodes, in which the ecliptic is intersected by the orbits of the planets, particularly by that of the moon. These points are, of course, shifting. The Dragon's Head is the point where the moon or other planet commences its northward latitude; it is considered masculine and benevolent in its influence. The Dragon's Tail is the point where the planets' southward progress begins; it is feminine and malevolent.
The Part of Fortune is the distance of the moon's place from the sun, added to the degrees of the ascendent.
The Twelve Planetary Houses are determined by drawing certain great circles through the intersection of the horizon and meridian, by which the whole globe or sphere is apportioned into twelve equal parts. In practice these lines are projected by a very simple method on a plane. The space in the centre of the figure thus described may be supposed to represent the situation of the earth, and is generally used to write down the exact time when the figure was erected, and for whose nativity, or for what question. Each division or house rules certain events in this order, reckoned from the east: i, life or person ; 2, riches; 3, brethren or kindred; 4, parents; 5, children ; 6, servants and sickness; 7, marriage; 8, death; 9, religion; 10, magistracy; n, friends; 12, enemies. These categories are made to comprehend all that can possibly befall any individual, and the prognostication is drawn from the configuration of the planets in one or more of these " houses."
The Horoscope denotes the configuration of the planets in the twelve houses ascertained for the moment of nativity, or the hour of the question. The Ascendent (a term sometimes used instead .of horoscope) is the planet rising in the east or first house, which marks the general character of the child then born. Hyleg is another term for the lord of life; Anareta for the destroyer of life, which are considered the chief places in a horoscope.
The Characters used in astrology, to denote the twelve signs, the planets, etc., are as follows:
These characters represent natural object?, but they have also a hieroglyphic or esoteric meaning that has been lost. The figure of Aries represents the head and horns of a ram ; that of Taurus, the head and horns of a bull ; that of Leo, the head and mane of a lion ; that of Gemini, two persons standing together, and so of the rest. The physical or astronomical reasons for'the adoption of these figures have been explained with great learning by the Abbfe Pluche, in his Histoire du del, and Dupuis, in his Abrege de I'Origine de tous les Cultes, has endeavoured to establish the principles of an astro-mythology, by tracing the progress of the moon through the twelve signs, in a series of adventures, which he compares with the wanderings of Isis. This kind 'of reasoning is suggestive, certainly, but it only establishes analogies, and proves nothing.
The cases in which astrological predictions were chiefly sought, were in Nativities ; that is. in ascertaining the fate and fortunes of any individual from the positions of the stars at the time of his birth ; and in questions called horary, which comprehended almost every matter which might be the subject of astrological inquiry. The event of sickness, the success of any undertaking, the reception of any suit, were all objects of horary questions. A person was said to be born under that planet which ruled the hour of his birth. Thus two hours every day are under the control of Saturn. The first hour after sunrise on Saturday is one of them. A person therefore born on Saturday in the first hour after sunrise, has Saturn for the lord of his ascendant ; those born in the next hour, Jupiter ; and so on in order. Venus rules the first hour on Friday ; Mercury on Wednesday Jupiter on Thursday, the sun and moon on Sunday and Monday, and Mars on Tuesday. The next thing is to make a figure divided into twelve portions, which are called houses, as directed above. The twelve houses are equal to the twelve signs, and the planets, being always in the zodiac, will therefore all fall within these twelve divisions or houses. The line, which separates any house from the preceding, is called the cusp of the house. The first house is called the ascendant, and the east angle; the fourth the imum eceli, or the north angle; the seventh, the west angle; and the tenth, the medium cceli, or the south angle. Having drawn this figure, tables and directions are given for the placing of the signs, and as one house is equal to one sign when one is given, the rest are given also. When the signs and planets are all placed in the houses, the next thing is to augur, from their relative position, what influence they will have on the life and fortunes of the native.
The House of Life implies all that affects, promotes, or endangers life. Saturn or Mars in this house denotes a short or unfortunate life, while Jupiter and Venus have, when free from evil aspects, an exactly contrary effect. The sign ascending will considerably modify the person and character of the native, so that to form an astrological judgment of this it will be necessary to combine the indications of the sign and the planet. In what are called horary questions, this house relates to all questions of life, health, and appearance, such as stature, complexion, shape, accidents and sickness. It shows the events of journeys and voyages, with respect to the life and health of those engaged in them. When the question is of a political nature, it signifies the people in general, and being of the same nature as Aries, all that is said of that sign may be transferred to this house. The second house, which is of the same nature as the sign Taurus, is called the house of riches. It signifies the advancement in the world with respect to opulence of the querent; and here the operations of the planets are, as in other cases, according to their own nature, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, and the Sun being fortunate, if well aspected, only denoting different causes of wealth; Saturn, Mars, the Moon, and Uranus, unfortunate. In horary questions, it signifies the money of the querent, or the success in a pecuniary point of view of any expedition of undertaking. It concerns loans, lawsuits, and everything by which riches may be gained or lost. In political questions it signifies the treasury, public loans, taxes, and subsidies; the younger branches of the blood-royal, and the death of national enemies. The third house is the house of kindred, particularly of brothers, and was probably so designated on account of the third sign Gemini, of which nature it is said to be. It denotes kindred, and the planets in this house are full of signification. Saturn signifies coldness and distrust; Mars, sudden, violent and hasty quarrels; Herschel, all unaccountable estrangements; Jupiter denotes steady friendships, Venus great love between brothers and sisters, and good fortune by. means of the latter; the Sun, warm attachment; the Moon, indifference. In horary questions, this house signifies the health, fortune and happiness of the querenl's parents, his own patrimony and inheritance, and the ultimate consequences, either good or bad, of any undertaking in which he may be engaged. In political cases it denotes the landed interest of a nation ; the ancient and chartered rights of all classes, which have been handed down to them from their ancestors; and all public advocates and defenders of these interests and rights.
The'fifth house, which has the same government, and partakes of the same character as Leo, is called the House of Children. In nativities, therefore, it denotes the children of the native, and their success and also his own success by means of them. It also has some reference to women. The health and welfare of children, whether present or absent, are determinable by the planets in this house. It also denotes all questions relative to amusement, simply, as it would seem, on account of the fondness of youth for such pursuits. In political questions consequently, we find this house taken to signify the rising generation, theatres, exhibitions, public festivals, and all national amusements; all increase in the population ; music and musical taste, sculpture, painting, and the advancement of the fine arts in general. The sixth house is that of servants, but it also denotes sickness and private enemies. It is usually considered an evil house, and but few configurations of the planets which can take place in it are fortunate. It is of the nature, and shares the government of Virgo. When the lord of the ascendant is placed in this house, it denotes a low station, and if in addition to this he be ill dignified, the native will not rise above menial employments. In horary astrology it points out servants and cattle, dependents, and small shopkeepers; uncles and aunts by the fathers side; tenants, stewards, shepherds and farmers. If, however, the question be political, then this house indicates the under-servants of the government; the common seamen in the navy, private soldiers in the army, and the general health of the nation. This last refers chiefly to contagious and epidemic disorders.
The seventh house, which is of the same nature as Libra, and has the same government, is the House of Marriage. If Saturn be found here, he denotes unhappiness from constitutional causes; Mars from difference of temper; Herschel, as usual, from some strange and unaccountable dislike. The other planets are mostly causers of good, unless exception be made in the case of the Moon. In horary questions, this house denotes love, speculations in business, partners in trade, lawsuits, and litigation; it is the House of Thieves, and sets forth thier conduct and character. In queries of a political nature, it signifies the event of any war, and the consequences of a treaty; it personates the victorious nation, army, or navy, and indicates outlaws and fugitives, with the places in which they have taken their retreat.
The eighth house is the House of Death. It denotes wills, legacies, and all property depending upon the death of others ; the power, means, and influence of adversaries; the opposing parties in lawsuits. It is of the nature of Scorpio, and has the same government. If Mars be unfortunately placed in this house, it portends a violent death to the native. Saturn is often productive of suicide, and Herschel of the mysterious disappearance of the unhappy individual, whose horoscope is so marked. Jupiter, on the contrary, and Venus, point out a late and quiet departure. In horary questions its significance has been already noticed, but it also denotes the portion or dowry of women, and seconds in duels. In political questions it has a signification of a very different character, viz., the privy council of a king or queen, their friends, and secrets of state. It does, however, bear some mark of its appropriation to death, by being made to denote the rate of mortality among the people. The ninth house is that of religion, science, and learning. It has the same government and nature as Sagittarius. Jupiter is the most fortunate planet in it, and if joined with Mercury, then the native is promised a character at once learned, estimable, and truly religious. The Sun and Venus are likewise good significators here, but the Moon denotes a changeable mind, and frequent alterations in religious principles. Mars is the worst planet in this house, and portends an indifference, or even an active hostility to religion. In horary questions the ninth house is appropriated to the church and the clergy; all ecclesiastical matters, dissent, heresy, schism, dreams, visions, and religious delusions. It also denotes voyages and travels to distant lands, and in questions of a political nature, the religion of the nation, and all the higher and more solemn courts of justice, such as Chancery, etc.
The tenth house is one of the most important of all. It is the House of Honour, Rank, and Dignity; of the nature and rule of Capricorn. In this house the planets are more powerful than in any other, save only the House of Life. They point out the employment, success, preferment, and authority of the native. Saturn is here the worst planet, but the Moon and Herschel are also mischievous, the latter by preventing the native from attaining that rank to which his services, learning, or merit entitle him, and doing this by a series of inexplicable disappointments. Jupiter and the Sun signify advancement by the favour oi distinguished men, and Venus, of distinguished women. In horary questions, the tenth house signifies the mother oi the querist; and politically the sovereign. This is a house in which Mars is not unfortunate, if well placed ; denoting war-like achievements and consequent honours.
The eleventh house is the House of Friends : it is of the nature of Aquarius, and has the same rule. It denotes, of course, friends, well-wishers, favourites, and flatterers, but is said to be a house in which evil planets are increased in strength, and good planets diminished. The Sun is the best planet in it, and Mars the worst. In horary questions it has the same signification as in a nativity, and also denotes the expectations and wishes of the querist. It is said to be much influenced by the sign which is in it, and to signify legacies, if the sign be one of the earthy triplicity, and honor with princes, if it be one of the fiery triplicity. In political questions, the eleventh house signifies the allies of the public, with whom no particular treaty is at the same time binding; and also the general council of the nation, and newly acquired rights.
Lastly, the twelfth house, which, of course, partakes the rule and character of Pisces, is the House of Enemies, and denotes sorrow, sickness, care, anxiety, and all kinds of suffering. Yet evil planets are weaker, according to some writers, and good planets stronger than in certain other houses. Very few configurations in this house are esteemed for the native, but its evil effects are, of course, greatly modified by the planetary influences. In horary questions it signifies imprisonment, treason, sedition, assassination, and suicide; and in questions which are of a political character, it points out deceitful treaties, unsuccessful negotiations, treachery in the offices of state, captivity to princes, and general ill furtune. The criminal code, and the punishment of culprits, dungeons, and circumstances connected with prison discipline are also denoted by this house. Saturn is the worst, and Venus the best planet to be present in it.
erected for the hour in which the question is put. Thus, let a person be sick, and the question be of his recovery, the Houses will now signify as follows, says Blagrave:
1. The patient's person 2. His estate 3. His kindred 4. His father or his grave 5. His children 6. His sickness and servants 7. His wife and his physician 8. His death 9. His religion 10. His mother and his physic 11. His friends 12. His enemies.
And according to the position of the planets - the above particulars are to be judged of. If the question be of stolen goods, a distribution of the houses is again made according to similar rules. And here the colour denoted by the signs is pertinent; for let Mercury signify the thief, then the sign in which that planet is found will denote the personal appearance and complexion of the thief. If the question be one concerning marriage, then it points out that of the future bride or bridegroom; and so on.
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